MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE

Volumen 7. Number 4. Year 2009.

2019-11-06T22:47:15+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 7. Number 4. Year 2009.|

VOLUME 7. NUMBER 4. 2009

Decomposition and Disarticulation of Kangaroo Carcasses in Caves at Naracoorte, South Australia.

Elizabeth Reed

Keywords: TAPHONOMY, DECOMPOSITION, DISARTICULATION, CAVES, NARACOORTE

[+info] VOLUME 7. NUMBERS 4. 2009 (1 issue)

This paper presents the results of a study of decomposition and disarticulation of kangaroo carcasses in caves at Naracoorte, South Australia. Carcasses were placed in two caves and observed over a period of nearly three years. Decomposition progressed rapidly within the caves with almost immediate infestation by blowflies and fungi. Invertebrate activity had ceased by 28 months; however, fungal colonisation continued for the course of the study period. Decomposition, skeletonisation and disarticulation were complete by 600 days. The results suggest that temperature and humidity play an important role in decomposition as this directly affects the activity of invertebrate and fungal decomposers. The position of the carcass within the cave influences the degree of dispersal of remains in pitfall caves. Disarticulation sequences for the experimental carcasses compare with those for kangaroo skeletons on the land surface in semi-arid South Australia, suggesting that regardless of environment, anatomy is a key factor in determining disarticulation sequence. The results of this study have applications for the assessment of stratigraphic integrity and reworking of fossil deposits in caves at Naracoorte and elsewhere.

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Experimental Artifact Transport by Harvester Ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.): Implications for Patterns in the Archaeological Record.

Benjamin J. Schoville, Lucy E. Burris, Lawrence C. Todd.

Keywords: HARVESTER ANTS, FORMATION PROCESSES, SURVEYING, BIOTURBATION

[+info] VOLUME 7. NUMBERS 4. 2009 (2 issue)

On the High Plains of North America the harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis and P. owyheei build large gravel covered nest mounds in which artifacts and small fossils are frequently deposited. The effect this mound building behavior has on the archaeological record has received little attention and has generally been viewed as restricted to subsurface tunneling disturbances. Initial experiments highlight the surface foraging behavior of harvester ants actively transporting artifacts during mound construction and maintenance. Non-food related foraging behavior was investigated by placing glass beads around ant mounds in various patterns to evaluate foraging distance, direction, density and distribution effects. Ants were observed to forage a maximum of 48 m from the nest but the majority of foraged materials were returned from within 20 m, regardless of density, direction, or distribution differences. Of 812 individual mounds recorded during an extensive landscape survey, 134 contained anthropogenic debris. Additionally, mounds tend to form near disturbed and eroding soils which enhance the opportunity for ants to acquire actively exposed artifacts during foraging for mound construction material. These characteristics of harvester ant foraging effectively create highly visible loci of small artifact concentrations that are otherwise poorly represented by traditional pedestrian surveys. Understanding the taphonomic signature of harvester ant artifact transport should aid in refining interpretations of artifact patterning observed in archaeological contexts.

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Home Sharing: Carnivores in Anthropogenic Assemblages of the Middle Pleistocene.

Jordi Rosell, Ruth Blasco.

Keywords: MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE, IBERIAN PENINSULA, CARNIVORES, GRAN DOLINA, BOLOMOR CAVE

[+info] VOLUME 7. NUMBERS 4. 2009 (3 issue)

The Middle Pleistocene is a period with a great variability of carnivores. Different species of big cats, hyaenids, bears and canids are common in faunal lists of anthropogenic assemblages. This phenomenon raised a discussion about the relationships between carnivores and hominids. This paper aims to provide data to understand the presence of carnivore remains or the elements generated by them in Middle Pleistocene anthropogenic assemblages. We analyze two Spanish sites for this specific work: TD10-sup of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos) and Level XII of the Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain). The origin of both accumulations is due to the predatory activities of humans and carnivores´ incidence is very low. The main objective of this study is to determine the role of predators in these accumulations and to evaluate their relationship with human communities. The anatomical representation of carcases, the age of death of animals, the identification of anthropogenic marks and tooth marks, and the morphology of the latter suggest the existence of marauding small scavengers. These animals visited the cavities once abandoned by hominids. From this perspective, we think that there are not direct relationships in the form of interaction between both biological entities.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Ants as taphonomic agents.

Benjamin J. Schoville, Paul Burnett, Lucy E. Burris, Lawrence C. Todd.

Keywords

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Volumen 8. Number 2-3. Year 2010.

2019-11-06T22:52:33+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 8. Number 2-3. Year 2010.|

VOLUME 8. NUMBER 2-3. 2010 [Paleoanthropological Taphonomy in Southern Africa Travis Rayne Pickering & Amy Egeland (eds.)]

Introduction to the special issue: Paleoanthropological Taphonomy in Southern Africa.

Travis Rayne Pickering, Amy Egeland.

Keywords

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Taphonomy of the Gondolin GD 2 in situ Deposits and its Bearing on Interpretations of South African Plio-Pleistocene Karstic Fossil Assemblages.

Justin W. Adams

Keywords: HOMININ TAPHONOMY, CARNIVORES, PALEONTOLOGY, CAVE SITE

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (2 issue)

The GD 2 fossil assemblage was excavated from a densely fossiliferous, calcified in situ hanging remnant adhering to the northwestern corner of the Gondolin cave system in 1979. At present, this sample is the only sizeable (n=95,549) Plio-Pleistocene (~1.8 million years ago) South African karstic-derived faunal assemblage sampled solely from calcified in situ sediments with minimal recovery phase temporal or spatial aggregation. Prior description of the assemblage only briefly addressed the taphonomy of the deposits; this paper presents the first comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the total macromammalian assemblage. The demographic composition and element preservation of the small mammal remains are consistent with autochthonous accumulation through use of the deposition area as habitat. The distribution of large mammal individuals across taxonomic and body size categories, representation of elements, and preserved element modifications are most consistent with allochthonous accumulation by a leopard-like carnivore with only a minor porcupine contribution. Carcasses appear to have been accumulated both relatively whole and directly into the depositional area, likely through use of the GD 2 region as a feeding retreat. Only minimal hydrological or other postdepositional resorting took place prior to excavation, although significant comminution of the assemblage likely occurred during the recovery phase processing of the calcified matrix. Integration of the results with recent interpretations of the Gondolin karstic system and primate-bearing Plio-Pleistocene South African assemblages highlight the fundamentally idiosyncratic nature of individual taphonomic measures and processes that mediated the composition of the macromammalian fossil records in karstic deposits, even those with similar primary accumulative agents or from spatially proximate portions of the same cave system.

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Using Strontium Isotopes to Study Site Accumulation Processes.

Sandi R. Copeland, Matt Sponheimer, Julia A. Lee-Thorp, Darryl J. de Ruiter, Petrus J. le Roux, Vaughan Grimes, Daryl Codron, Lee R. Berger, Michael P. Richards.

Keywords: STRONTIUM ISOTOPES, CAVE FILL, TAPHONOMY, FOSSIL RODENTS, STERKFONTEIN, SWARTKRANS, GLADYSVALE

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (3 issue)

Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in tooth enamel reflect the geological substrate on which an animal lived during tooth development. Therefore, strontium isotopes of teeth in fossil cave accumulations are potentially useful in determining whether an animal was native to the vicinity of the site or was brought in by other agents such as predators from farther afield. In this study, we tested the ability of strontium isotopes to help determine the origins of fossil rodents in Gladysvale Cave, South Africa. First, biologically available 87Sr/86Sr ratios were established using modern plants recovered from three geologically distinct areas, the Malmani dolomite, the Hekpoort andesite/basalt, and the Timeball Hill shale, all of which were found to be significantly different. Strontium isotope values were then measured on tooth enamel of rodents from a modern barn owl (Tyto alba) roost in Gladysvale Cave. The results clearly distinguished modern owl roost rodents that came from local dolomite (67%) versus those from other geological zones. We then measured strontium isotope values of enamel from 14 fossil rodent teeth from Gladysvale Cave. The average and range of values for the fossil rodents is similar to that of the modern owl roost rodents. Fifty-seven percent of the fossil rodents probably derived from the local dolomite, while others were brought in from at least 0.8 km away. A pilot study of 87Sr/86Sr ratios of fossil rodent teeth from Swartkrans Member 1 and Sterkfontein Member 4 indicates that 81% and 55% of those rodents, respectively, are from the local dolomite substrate. Overall, this study shows that strontium isotopes can be a useful tool in taphonomic analyses by identifying non-local individuals, and has great potential for elucidating more of the taphonomic history of fossil accumulations in the dolomitic cave sites of South Africa.

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Investigating the Role of Eagles as Accumulating Agents in the Dolomitic Cave Infills of South Africa.

Darryl J. de Ruiter, Sandi R. Copeland, Julia Lee-Thorp, Matt Sponheimer.

Keywords: TAPHONOMY, EAGLE PREDATION, PROCAVIID, CERCOPITHECID, TAUNG CHILD, STRONTIUM ISOTOPES, ACCUMULATING AGENT

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (4 issue)

The potential importance of large raptors as accumulators of early hominins was highlighted by the suggestion that the Taung Child was killed and deposited by an eagle (Berger & Clarke [1995] Journal of Human Evolution, 29: 275-299), and it has been hypothesized that eagles might have had a significant impact on the evolution of predator avoidance behaviors in early hominins (Berger & McGraw [2007] South African Journal of Science, 103: 496-498). In this study, we compare skeletal part representation of procaviid and cercopithecid fossils from the dolomitic cave infills of South Africa to a series of modern eagle-derived bone accumulations. We supplement skeletal part analysis with data on strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in the Bloubank Valley that allow us to source fossils to particular geological substrates. Of the fourteen discrete faunal assemblages examined, nine were inconsistent with eagles as accumulators of procaviids or cercopithecids, while five revealed possible, though not definitive, evidence of eagle involvement. A lack of support for eagles as collectors of the smaller mammals that make up their typical prey weakens the hypothesis that eagles represented a significant threat to the larger, presumably more difficult to capture, juvenile hominins. The majority of the animals sampled for 87Sr/86Sr ratios at Swartkrans were consistent with being derived from local dolomites, including four Papio specimens, while we documented a non-local origin for a single procaviid and a single bovid from the Hanging Remnant of Member 1. In contrast, all of the procaviid specimens and a single bovid specimen from Sterkfontein Member 4 exhibited nonlocal strontium signals. Turning to the Taung Child, at present a clear link between it and the original Taung faunal assemblage examined by Raymond Dart cannot be established. In addition, preparation damage cannot be ruled out as the source of several marks on the Taung skull that have been putatively assigned to eagle talon damage. As a result, the hypothesized influence of large raptors such as eagles on the evolution of predator avoidance strategies in early hominins remains intriguing but unsubstantiated.

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A Multivariate Approach for Discriminating Bone Accumulations Created by Spotted Hyenas and Leopards: Harnessing Actualistic Data from East and Southern Africa.

Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Travis Rayne Pickering.

Keywords: SKELETAL PART PROFILES, BONE SURFACE MODIFICATIONS, CARNIVORE TOOTH MARKS, PREY MORTALITY PROFILES, MULTIVARIATE APPROACH

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (5 issue)

Hyenas and large felids were important contributors of bones to the Pliocene and Pleistocene paleontological record of South Africa and elsewhere. Thus, discerning the taphonomic signatures of each is of great importance to paleoanthropologists who view those carnivores as predators and/or competitors of early hominins. Several neotaphonomic studies have emphasized characteristics that distinguish faunas created by hyenas and large cats. Recognizing that many of these studies contend or imply independence in variables that are actually interdependent, we conducted multivariate analyses on published data (including prey skeletal part profiles, tooth mark frequencies, anatomical patterning of tooth marks on bones, number of tooth marks per specimen [as a measure of gnawing], ungulate long limb bone [i.e., humeri, radioulnae, femora, tibiae and metapodials]) completeness and bone breakage) to demonstrate that bone accumulating behavior is quite variable for both hyenas and felids. Our results reveal that previously employed analogs are incomplete and transitory, and stress the need for more actualistic work on the topic. That work should lead to more fully realized referential analogs, replacing earlier, inferentially weak ones and providing powerful tools for archaeologists and paleontologists to use in interpreting the formation of fossil faunas. We end our recommendations with tentative endorsement of prey mortality analysis-mediated by application of actualistically derived and taphonomically sensitized prey age frequency data - as an additional method for distinguishing hyena- and leopard-accumulated faunas.

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Taphonomic Fieldwork in Southern Africa and its Application in Studies of the Earliest Peopling of North America.

Gary Haynes, Kathryn E. Krasinski.

Keywords: PRE-CLOVIS, ELEPHANT BONE-FLAKING, CUTMARKS, REPLICATIVE EXPERIMENTS, ACTUALISM

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (6 issue)

Cutmarked and broken mammoth bones figure prominently in assertions that Homo sapiens dispersed into North America before the appearance of Clovis archeological culture, which is dated about 13 ka. Beside pre-dating Clovis, the bonesites differ from Clovis in that most lack lithic tools. Taphonomic studies, experimental replications, and arguments of plausibility have not perfectly supported or wholly disproved the assertions that the bonesites were created by human actions. Taphonomic and actualistic research in southern Africa reveals a wide range of noncultural and human-generated patterns in breaks, flakes, and cutmarks on modern elephant bones. These studies suggest that many (if not all) of the early modified mammoth remains do not indicate a pre-Clovis human presence.

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Taphonomic Processes of Bone Distribution and Deposition in the Tufa Caves of Taung, South Africa.

Jeffrey K. McKee.

Keywords: TAUNG, KARST TAPHONOMY, TUFA CAVES

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (7 issue)

The tufa caves at Taung create a somewhat unique depositional environment for the bones that are brought in by various taphonomic agents. The Taung hominin skull, type specimen of Australopithecus africanus, and associated fossil fauna must be interpreted within the particular context of such tufa caves. Taphonomic experiments with three animals were conducted to elucidate the nature of bone distribution and deposition in a cave that is similar in nature to those in which Pliocene fossils were deposited. It was found that dry portions of the cave tend to preserve a higher proportion of the skeletal remains, and that the distribution of bones is relatively restricted. Skeletal representation of this nature parallels that found in the densely fossiliferous Hrdlika Deposits at Taung. This contrasts with the wet portion of the cave in which water activity tends to spread bones over a wider area and results in lesser skeletal representation. It may be postulated that fossils of the Taung Dart Deposits, perhaps including the Taung hominin, could have been deposited as water-borne carcasses. This taphonomic process would account for the singularity of the Australopithecus fossil and the sparseness of fossils in the Dart Deposits. Another important conclusion is that, as both dry and wet depositional processes can occur simultaneously in a single cave, sediments are not necessarily reflective of changes in conditions outside of the cave. Therefore, paleoecological interpretations of the Taung fossil sites must take into account the taphonomic agents and immediate conditions of deposition.

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What Taphonomically Oriented Research at Swartkrans Cave Reveals about Early Hominid Behavior.

Travis Rayne Pickering, C. K. Brain.

Keywords: MEAT-EATING, EXTRACTIVE FORAGING, HOMINID-CARNIVORE INTERACTION

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (8 issue)

The paleoanthropological significance of Swartkrans Cave (South Africa) is as much for the inferences of early Pleistocene hominid behavior it provides as for its large samples of Australopithecus robustus and Homo erectus fossils. Most of those behavioral inferences emanate from the taphonomic studies one of us (CKB) conducted in concert with his 1965-1986 excavations at Swartkrans. After a fieldwork hiatus of 19 years, we are building on that seminal work, with the establishment of the Swartkrans Paleoanthropological Research Project (SPRP), a new round of excavations and laboratory studies at the site. The SPRP has a wide range of goals, including: obtainment of (uranium) U-series dates for speleothems distributed throughout the Swartkrans Formation; more accurate characterization of the technology and function of the site's stone and bone tools; further detailed analyses of the behaviorally informative zooarchaeological assemblages from the cave; continued investigation of burned bones, which might indicate hominid-controlled fire in the early Pleistocene. We review the entirety of this collective work, emphasizing its broader paleoanthropological significance.

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Where the Wild Things Were: Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Carnivores in the Cradle of Humankind (Gauteng, South Africa) in Relation to the Accumulation of Mammalian and Hominin Assemblages.

Sally C. Reynolds

Keywords: LARGE CARNIVORES; STERKFONTEIN; SWARTKRANS, SPATIAL PATTERNS, TEMPORAL CHANGES; EXTINCTIONS

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (9 issue)

This paper examines the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of carnivore species in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage site, South Africa. These taxa are inferred to have played an active role in the accumulation of the mammalian faunas, including hominins. There are distinct temporal changes in the predominating large carnivores at sites across the Sterkfontein Valley and beyond, although certain assemblages from the Cradle sites show evidence of time-averaging. By the mid-to late Pleistocene, the structure of the carnivore community was altered by the extinction of the three machairodont genera (Dinofelis, Homotherium and Megantereon), the giant hyaena, Pachycrocuta and the hunting hyaena genus Chasmaporthetes. The younger assemblages from Sterkfontein and Swartkrans show increasing proportions of smaller canids and felids. Extant carnivore species show a distinctive prey accumulation bias, depending on the body size and sociality of the species concerned. Social species such as the lion (Panthera leo), spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) and black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are common in the Cradle deposits, both in time and space, and so were probably resident species in this region. Although present at certain sites, the relative scarcity of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and giant short-faced hyaena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris) indicate that these taxa are unlikely to have been permanently resident within the catchment areas of the sites. Certain taxa such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), are present at low levels at the majority of sites, and remain active in the Cradle of Humankind to the present day. These distribution patterns yield insights into the likely contributors to the fossil assemblages of this important region.

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Exotic Minerals or Ostrich Gastroliths? An Alternative Explanation for Some Early Evidence of Hominin Non-Utilitarian Behavior at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa.

Christian Tryon

Keywords: MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE, SYMBOLIC BEHAVIOR, OSTRICH, GASTROLITH

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (10 issue)

Identifying the onset of symbolic or non-utilitarian behavior remains one of the most important issues in the modern human origins debate, and as such, early evidence requires careful scrutiny. 'Exotic minerals' dating to >350 ka are one of several possible indications of hominin non-utilitarian behavior from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. Ecological data suggest an alternate hypothesis that these 'exotic minerals' are ostrich gastroliths accidentally introduced into the cave rather than the result of hominin collection and transport.

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A Taphonomic Study of Ochre Demonstrates Post-depositional Color Transformations.

Lyn Wadley

Keywords: OCHRE, EXPERIMENTAL FIRES, POST-DEPOSITIONAL COLOR CHANGE

[+info] VOLUME 8. NUMBERS 2&3. 2010 (11 issue)

The predominance of red ochre over other colors in Middle Stone Age deposits has led archaeologists to suggest that this color was chosen for symbolic reasons. While this may have been the case, replication studies imply that the dominance of red ochre in archaeological deposits can result from either anthropogenic or post-depositional activities. Yellow, brown and orange hydrated iron oxides can be transformed from yellow or brown to red, or shades of red, through heat in simple camp fires. Ochre processing areas and variously colored ochre nodules found at Sibudu Cave, South Africa, confirm the presence of both hydrated and dehydroxylated forms of iron oxide. Replications demonstrate that yellow ochre can transform to red or shades of red when it is buried in sand under a fire. Temperatures of 300 to 400 degrees C can routinely be obtained 5 cm below a small camp fire and temperatures of close to 300 degrees C can even be achieved 10 cm below the centre of a fire. Such conditions are ideal for dehydroxylating iron oxides and transforming their colors. In the past, the transformation may sometimes have been deliberate, but on other occasions ochre nodules or ochre residues present on artefacts may have been heated serendipitously through unintentional proximity to heat; thus fires lit above ancestral camp sites can cause post-depositional change to the colloids or minerals thousands of years after they were used at a site.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Paleoanthropoogical taphonomy in Southern Africa.

Travis Rayne Pickering.

Keywords

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Volumen 10. Number 3-4. Year 2012.

2019-11-06T23:02:06+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 10. Number 3-4. Year 2012.|

VOLUME 10. NUMBER 3-4. 2012 [SPECIAL ISSUE. Edited by Jordi Rosell, Enrique Baquedano, Ruth Blasco, Edgard Camarós]

New Insights on Hominid-Carnivore Interactions during the Pleistocene.

Jordi Rosell, Enrique Baquedano, Ruth Blasco, Edgard Camarós.

Keywords

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Competition Theory and the Case for Pleistocene Hominin-Carnivore Co-evolution.

Mary C. Stiner.

Keywords: ZOOARCHAEOLOGY, TAPHONOMY, PREDATOR-PREDATOR INTERACTIONS, PREY AGE SELECTION, BONE TRANSPORT, PREY CHOICE

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (2 issue)

Virtually every period in human evolutionary history provides examples of co-evolutionary processes with animal, plant or fungi species. Some of the earliest examples of co-evolutionary processes come from zooarchaeological studies of human interactions with members of the order Carnivora. Archaeological research on this subject goes back 50 years or more and follows numerous conceptual paths. This paper explores ideas and some of the evidence of hominin-carnivore co-evolutionary processes from the viewpoint of evolutionary ecology and the extent to which these ideas have progressed in recent decades. The challenge is to demonstrate that the evolutionary paths of co-evolving species were mutually constrained. Some key behavioral outcomes among humans include non-primate behaviors such as habitual food transport, extensive food sharing and efficient processing of animal foods-behaviors also critical to the success of many of the social carnivores. Another outcome argued to have arisen from co-evolutionary relations is partial complementarity in the patterns of prey age selection among humans and other large predators across African and Eurasian ecosystems. At the heart of ideas about cause in hominin-carnivore co-evolution are competition models.

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A Comparative Neo-Taphonomic Study of Felids, Hyaenids and Canids: an Analogical Framework Based on Long Bone Modification Patterns.

Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Agness O. Gidna, J. Yravedra, C. Musiba.

Keywords: TAPHONOMY, BONE SURFACE MODIFICATION, FURROWING, FELID, HYAENID, CANID

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (3 issue)

Previous studies have emphasized the overlap in bone modifications by different types of carnivores. However, the documented overlap is not enough to prevent taphonomists from differentiating among carnivore types (e.g., felids, hyaenids and canids). The present work elaborates on previous experimental works and produces an analogical framework created with the intention of differentiating predator/scavenger bone modification by analyzing furrowing patterns on epiphyseal ends. Taking long bones from the same carcass type as a reference, it will be shown that the three major groups of carnivores (felids, hyaenids and canids) can be successfully differentiated. The patterns of long bone furrowing by these three groups will be presented.

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Food Web Structure during the European Pleistocene.

G. Rodríguez-Gómez, J. Rodríguez , A. Mateos, J.A. Martín-González, I. Goikoetxea.

Keywords: FOOD WEBS, PLEISTOCENE, STANDING MASS, CARNIVORE GUILD

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (4 issue)

Several models that have been proposed for explaining human evolution involve human-carnivore relationships. Reconstructing the structure and functioning of past food webs is, therefore, essential for evaluating the assumptions and conclusions of these models. Here we present a preliminary attempt to reconstruct the structure of some Pleistocene food webs from the Iberian Peninsula and to compare them with recent food webs from several regions and environments. The present work is a first step towards the reconstruction of past food web dynamics and is aimed at gaining a better understanding of the role of humans in past food webs. Our analysis was restricted to mammals weighing more than 10 kg because they constitute the portion of the food web that allegedly included hominins. Predator-prey interactions for fossil species pairs are inferred from their body sizes, evidence from the fossil record and behavioural information from close living relatives. The number of potential prey per predator in Pleistocene and recent food webs is compared, and the relationship between the number of secondary consumers and the standing biomass of primary consumers, estimated using allometric relationships, is investigated. Pleistocene food webs show a distinctive architecture, with a relatively large number of secondary consumers and a small number of primary consumers. In addition, the size distribution of primary consumers also differs between recent and Pleistocene food webs. Our results point to high intraguild competition during the Pleistocene, especially during the Early Pleistocene, which may have conditioned resource availability for Paleolithic hunter-gatherer populations.

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Neanderthals, Bears and Hyenas, oh my! Competition for Exclusive Use of Space.

James G. Enloe.

Keywords: NEANDERTHALS, BEARS, HYENAS, COMPETITION

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (5 issue)

Pleistocene cave sediments present a complex geological, paleontological and archaeological record. Cave strata represent long time-averaged depositional processes that reflect substantial climatic variation. Parsing the occupation of caves by hominids and carnivores during the Middle Palaeolithic is one of the challenges of taphonomic research. Both groups served as accumulators of animal bone in what became palimpsests of repeated occupations. These are low-resolution deposits, making it difficult to discern patterning and spatial organization or the relationship between hominids and carnivores. The Grotte du Bison, Arcy-sur-Cure, France contains a well documented sequence of occupations by Neanderthals and other carnivores within a long geologic sequence that reflects climatic variation. This paper explores the periodicity and frequency of use of the cave by different species over time. Data suggest a low frequency of habitation by hominids and more frequent occupation by hyenas and other large carnivores during the Mousterian, with little inter-species competition for space at any given time. Later in the sequence, during the Châtelperronian, data indicate exclusive occupation by Neanderthals, followed by abandonment of the space to hibernating bears, with a shift in occupation by humans to the neighboring Grotte du Renne.

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Bone Modification by Modern Wolf (Canis lupus): A Taphonomic Study From their Natural Feeding Places.

Philippe Fosse, Nuria Selva, Wojciech Smietana, Henryk Okarma, Adam Wajrak, Jean Baptiste Fourvel, Stéphane Madelaine, Montserrat Esteban-Nadal, Isabel Cáceres, José Yravedra, Jean Philip Brugal, Audrey Prucca, Gary Haynes.

Keywords: TAPHONOMY, WOLF, BONE DESTRUCTIONS, SCATS

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (6 issue)

Large carnivore neotaphonomy is used to provide guidelines for understanding fossil bone assemblages. However, few studies have been carried out on the taphonomic signatures of wolves (Canis lupus) in their natural settings. From 2001 to 2007, 56 wolf feeding places were studied in 2 geographic areas of Poland (Bialowieza, Bieszczady). We recorded ecological aspects such as prey selection, time span of carcasses use, scavengers' activity and the identification of prey from ungulate hairs found in scats, and taphonomic considerations, such as the number and type of bone remains, intensity of tooth modification on carcasses and the effect of digestion on skeletal elements observed in scats. Localities studied included kill sites (4 C. capreolus and 20 C. elaphus in Bialowieza, 29 C. elaphus in Bieszczady) and scavenging sites (10 B. bonasus carcasses in Bialowieza). In order to characterize taphonomically impact of wolf on medium- and large-size ungulates, the general bone modifications recorded in this study are compared with data from North American and Iberian wolf feeding sites as well as from other large carnivore (Crocuta) den contents.

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The Wild Wolf (Canis lupus) as a Dispersal Agent of Animal Carcasses in Northwestern Spain.

José Yravedra, Laura Lagos, Felipe Bárcena.

Keywords: TAPHONOMY, WOLVES, HORSES, DISPERSION

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (7 issue)

Hominid-carnivore interaction is a constant feature along the Pleistocene: both species shared time and space, and contributed to the formation of bone assemblages. Thus, the identification of the agent responsible for the accumulations found in any site demands a series of analyses. Taking into account that wolves were frequent carnivores in the European Pleistocene as well as potential predators of medium-sized prey, we approach the study of the record they produce on carcasses. Based on previous works of their taphonomic impact on horse carcasses (Yravedra et al., 2011), we now focus on the distribution patterns they generate and the identification of wolves either as dispersal or accumulating agents in order to compare this behaviour with the patterns found at Palaeolithic sites. Our research suggests that wolves are wolves are shown to be agents of dispersal.

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Consumption of Ungulate Long Bones by Pleistocene Hyaenas: a Comparative Study.

Jean-Baptiste Fourvel, Philippe Fosse, Jean-Philip Brugal, Jean-François Tournepiche, Evelyne Cregut-Bonnoure.

Keywords: CROCUTA, PLEISTOCENE, TAPHONOMY, BONE DAMAGE, UNGULATES, CONSUMPTION, FRAGMENTATION, TOOTH MARK

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (8 issue)

Hyaenas are important consumers of meat and accumulators of bone. A number of taphonomic studies have focused on modern and fossil assemblages accumulated by hyaenas with a view to developing greater understanding of palaeontological and archaeological assemblages. This research has revealed important variability in the characteristics of bone accumulations, not only through different methods of study, but also because of field context, intrinsic factors, such as occupation time and age profiles, and extrinsic factors, such as climatic conditions, prey species structure, competition. In order to characterize hyaenas as taphonomic agents, we present a diachronic comparison of the consumption of long bones of medium-to-large ungulates (size categories III to V) by cave hyaenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea based on Middle to Upper Pleistocene assemblages from Lunel-Viel 1 (Marine Isotopic Stage 9-11; NISP=2149), Artenac c10 (MIS 5c; NIPS=136), Peyre (MIS 5e; NISP=330), Fouvent (MIS 3; NISP=194) and Conives (MIS 3; NISP=523). Fragmentation of appendicular elements highlights two features; depending on the element, bones with significant amounts of meat and marrow (humerus, radius, femur, tibia) are widely represented by long shaft fragments with chewing damage, while metapodials, which are consumed to a lesser degree are often complete or have large portions of their shafts intact with often an end affected by scooping out on the caudal side. Comparison of bone accumulations from modern hyaena dens (Djibouti) and bone consumed by other Holocene and Pleistocene predators, Ursus arctos (Mont Ventoux) and Panthera onca gombaszoegensis (Artenac Ens. I and II), highlights the particular taphonomic signature and significant impact of Cave hyaenas on medium-to-large size prey.

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Late Pleistocene Large Mammal Paleocommunities: A Comparative Study Between Localities with Brown Bear (Ursus arctos), Cave bear (U. spelaeus) and Mousterian Lithic Assemblage.

Suvi Viranta, Aurora Grandal d’Anglade.

Keywords: URSUS SPELAUS, URSUS ARCTOS, MOUSTERIAN CULTURE, PALEOCOMMUNITY, EXTINCTION

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (9 issue)

Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and brown bear (U. arctos) fossils are common in the Eurasian Late Pleistocene deposits. Human presence is often indicated by Mousterian culture artifacts. The cave bear and the Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis), a human group associated with Mousterian culture, became extinct before the Holocene, whereas the brown bear survived. Here we studied large mammal paleocommunities from fossil localities with brown bear fossils, cave bear fossils and Mousterian lithic assemblage in the Late Pleistocene to test if paleocommunities reflect different habitats for brown bear than the two extinct species. Second we asked if paleocommunities in sites with Mousterian culture assemblage reflect more the prey selection than the environment of the people. Our results indicate that Mousterian sites have higher abundance of equids and mustelids than the bear sites, but lower abundance of large carnivores, especially cursorial ones. These probably reflect prey preferences and competitive exclusion of large carnivores by people associated with Mousterian lithic culture. We found no significant differences in paleocommunities suggesting different habitats for brown bear, cave bear or for people associated with Mousterian lithic assemblage.

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Interactions Between Neanderthals and Carnivores in Eastern Europe.

Marylène Patou-Mathis.

Keywords: BEHAVIORS, NEANDERTHALS, CARNIVORES, EASTERN EUROPE

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (10 issue)

In Eastern Europe, they are many Middle Paleolithic caves, dated to the Last Interglacial of the First Wechselien Interpleniglacial, which delivered both traces of human and ursid occupations. Moreover, this occurs less frequently in hyena dens. By region, three types of archaeological sites have been evidenced: (1) poor in carnivore bones, (2) rich in bones of different carnivorous species, (3) rich in bones of one carnivore species, divided into two types: low anthropogenic occupation (3a) and high anthropogenic occupation (3b). In Eastern Europe, the exploitation of carnivores by Neanderthals is very rare, it appears slightly more intense in layers with industry attributed to the transition and the ancient Aurignacian.

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Human and Hyena Co-occurrences in Pleistocene sites: Insights from Spatial, Faunal and Lithic Analyses at Camiac and La Chauverie (SW France).

Emmanuel Discamps, Anne Delagnes, Michel Lenoir, Jean-François Tournepiche.

Keywords: BEHAVIORS, NEANDERTHALS, CARNIVORES, EASTERN EUROPE

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (11 issue)

In several caves, lithic artifacts or human-modified bones have been found as more or less associated with large faunal assemblages accumulated by cave hyenas. Even if these small records remain often hard to interpret, they are essential to understand interactions between human groups and other cave dwellers. Their study can bring new elements of discussion on critical issues such as the intensity of competition for shelter occupation or the potential existence of specific human activities in hyena dens (e.g. scavenging of meat scraps, collecting of bones). Here we present an interdisciplinary work on two Upper Pleistocene hyena dens, Camiac and La Chauverie, where a small number of Middle Paleolithic artifacts have been found. Results are provided by the combination of three disciplines: faunal taphonomy, lithic analyses (including studies of reduction sequences) and spatial analysis (threedimensional plotting, systematic refitting). At Camiac and La Chauverie, our interdisciplinary analysis highlights two distinctive types of human occupations. Sites that first seem to be closely related (hyena dens with scarce lithic artifacts) hide in fact a variety of situations, ranging from the succession of independent occupations of human groups and hyenas to potential traces of short human visits to hyena dens. Finally, by comparing our results with the regional record, we discuss the actual evidence for competition for shelter between cave hyenas and the last Neanderthals in southwestern France.

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Dhole (Cuon alpinus) as a Bone Accumulator and New Taphonomic Agent? The Case of Noisetier Cave (French Pyrenees).

Jean-Baptiste Mallye, SandrineCostamagno, MyriamBoudadi-Maligne, Audrey Prucca, Véronique Lauroulandie, Céline Thiébaut, VincentMourre.

Keywords: DHOLE, CUON, COPROCOENOSIS, TAPHONOMY, NOISETIER CAVE, BONE ACCUMULATION, DIGESTION, LATE PLEISTOCENE

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (12 issue)

Noisetier Cave (French Pyrenees) has yielded Mousterian artefacts associated with numerous faunal remains. The faunal spectrum is dominated by chamois and ibex followed by red deer and bovids. A previous taphonomic analysis underlined the occurrence of two distinct types of bone accumulations. The red deer, bovid and a part of the ibex remains have been accumulated by Neanderthal. We suspected that the bearded vultures were responsible for the chamois and some of the ibex remains. The study of the carnivore remains illustrated the abundance of teeth and to a lesser extent bones attributed to both young and adult Cuon alpinus individuals. The identification of shed milk teeth demonstrates that this carnivore used the cave as a nursery den. According to several authors dholes never bring back carcasses to their dens in order to protect their offspring from other carnivores. However they tend to select an area inside their den to defecate. We analysed modern scats of wolf in order to constitute a taphonomic referential. Our results strongly suggest that most of the digested remains from the Noisetier Cave come from dhole scats. This carnivore can be considered, as Binford previously suggested, as a bone accumulator and consequently as a new taphonomic agent. Given the numerous sites where the fossil remains of this carnivore were identified we argue that the dholes could have biased the composition of faunal spectrums and maybe our understanding on human subsistence.

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Carcass Acquisition and Consumption by Carnivores and Hominins in Middle Pleistocene Sites of Casablanca (Morocco).

Camille Daujeard, Denis Geraads, Rosalia Gallotti, Abderrahim Mohib, Jean-Paul Raynal.

Keywords: HOMININS, CARNIVORES, MOROCCO, MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE, SUBSISTENCE, COMPETITION, BONE ACCUMULATORS

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (13 issue)

Study of faunal series resulting from recent excavations in two caves in North Atlantic Morocco (Grotte à Hominidés - GH - and Grotte des Rhinocéros - GDR - at Thomas I and Oulad Hamida 1 quarries, Casablanca) has yielded new evidence concerning the gathering and processing of ungulates carcasses during the Middle Pleistocene in this part of North Africa. Preliminary taphonomic analysis of the macrofauna indicates that the carcasses were mainly introduced in the caves by carnivores. Additionally, marks generated by porcupines also occur. Dimensions and morphologies of tooth-marks and coprolites suggest that carnivores of different sizes (mainly middle-sized canids, hyenids and felids), as well as porcupines, used the cave. Cut-marks on the bones are absent at GH and scarce at GDR, despite their association with lithic artefacts and human fossils. This raises the question of the relationship between hominins and other competitors in these caves. The recurring question is to determine the modalities of niche partitioning by the various predators and/or carrion-eaters as well as the mode of introduction of artefacts and human remains.

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Hominin-Carnivore Interaction at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove, UK.

Geoff M. Smith

Keywords: LOWER PALAEOLITHIC, BOXGROVE, TAPHONOMY, HOMININ-CARNIVORE INTERACTIONS

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (14 issue)

Boxgrove is an exceptional Lower Palaeolithic locality. Fine grained deposits that contain large quantities of lithic tools and modified fauna have been identified and excavated over a large area. These large data sets allow for a unique discussion of hominin-carnivore interactions at a landscape scale. Modifications identified and reported in this study demonstrate that hominins had primary access to most carcasses and products. This primacy can be tracked across the site and relates to animals of different sizes and that inhabited different environmental niches. Where carnivore and hominin modifications have been identified on the same specimen, the former frequently overlie the latter. Furthermore, Boxgrove preserves evidence for the repeated episodes of hominin-carnivore behaviour within and across this landsurface along with evidence for single episode butchery at GTP 17. At Boxgrove there is evidence for direct hominin-carnivore interaction. There is a high intensity and quantity of hominin butchery signatures compared to carnivore modifications. The Boxgrove faunal assemblage clearly indicates that by 500 kya H. heidelbergensis was a top predator in this environment and capable of acquiring and securing prey, of various sizes, against other carnivores such as lion and hyaena.

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Did Neanderthals and Carnivores Compete for Animal Nutritional Resources in the Surroundings of the Cave of Zafarraya?

Miguel Caparrós, Cecilio Barroso Ruíz, Anne Marie Moigne, Antonio Monclova Bohorquez.

Keywords: ZAFARRAYA, NEANDERTHALS, CARNIVORES, INTERACTIONS, HERBIVORES, CAPRA PYRENAICA, LITHICS, PATH ANALYSIS

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (15 issue)

This paper proposes a novel approach to study the interactions of Neanderthals and carnivores in the cave of Zafarraya by comparing the lithic archaeological and faunal records with a statistical path analysis, taking into consideration the ecology of the main carnivore predators and large herbivore prey foraging in the surroundings of the cave. The results of the analyses confirm and shed further light on previous taphonomic and zooarcheological research. The findings concur with the two-species Lotka- Volterra competition model for resources which stipulates that when niche overlap is complete the species with the larger fitness excludes the other. Our analysis shows that in the immediate vicinity of the cave, the fitness of Panthera was greater than Neanderthals', i.e. when Panthera was present it excluded Neanderthals as evidenced by the record of Capra and Rupicapra remains. It also shows that further in the southern hills and the polje where large herbivores roamed, Neanderthals had a greater fitness than carnivores which translated into their primary accumulation in the cave of remains of Cervus elaphus and other large herbivores. Coexistence from occasional niche overlap is apparent when one or the other predator scavenged, but from a time prospective it must have been short periods linked to seasonality, weather conditions and occupation randomness. In Zafarraya, the archaeological record would indicate that the degree of fitness of the herbivore prey accumulators, carnivores or Neanderthals, was related to the nature of the geomorphological domains in the vicinity of the cave and the favored foraging areas of hunted herbivores.

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The Complex Carnivore-rich Assemblages from Furninha (Peniche, Portugal): a Multidisciplinary Approach.

Jean-Philip Brugal, Jacqueline Argant, José António Crispim, Silvério Figueiredo, Alberto Martín Serra, Paul Palmqvist.

Keywords: CARNIVORES, PLEISTOCENE, PORTUGAL, TAPHONOMY, TAXONOMY, ENVIRONMENT, ECOLOGY, COMPETITION

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (16 issue)

The cave-site of Furninha is located on the sea cliff face of the small peninsular zone of Peniche in Portuguese Estremadura. Excavated by N. Delgado at the end of nineteenth century, it yielded a very rich and diversified Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage attributed to the early Late Pleistocene. A preliminary global overview is given in terms of geology, palaeobotany, palaeobiology s.l. and taphonomy. The fossils come from a ca.6 m deep pit in the basement of the karstic galleries with several layers. Carnivore remains dominate among large mammals, especially bear, hyena, wolf and lynx. In contrast, herbivore remains are few and show specific damage due to predators. Among the small mammals, a huge number of leporid bones as well as remains of insectivores and birds were found. Some few lithic artifacts occurred. The two first predators, bear and hyena, represent a well preserved collection with several skulls and mandibles as well as many complete long bones from both young and adult individuals. Hyenid remains are attributed to 'Hyaena prisca', a taxon known from late Middle Pleistocene sites, which survived later in Portugal. Its taxonomic and phyletic relationships are not well known, and first morphofunctional analyses precise its status and paleoautoecology. We detail the vertebrate assemblages recovered from the different stratigraphic layers, which will allow us to comment the degree of intra- and interspecific competitions, and to explain the origin of such bone accumulations and behaviors of these predators.

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Exploring Cave Use and Exploitation Among Cave Bears, Carnivores and Hominins in the Swabian Jura, Germany.

Keiko Kitagawa, Petra Krönneck, Nicholas J. Conard, Susanne C. Münzel.

Keywords: MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC, AURIGNACIAN, GRAVETTIAN, CAVE USE, CAVE BEARS, CARNIVORES, SWABIAN JURA

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (17 issue)

This study offers an overview of carnivore remains from archaeological contexts and provides evidence of interaction between carnivores and hominins in the Swabian Jura during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic (~50,000-27,000 uncal B.P.). First, we present data on the carnivores in the faunal assemblages from the area, followed by a general comparison of anthropogenic and carnivore modifications on faunal remains. Further, we describe some archaeological findings that demonstrate unique ways in which humans interacted with carnivores in the early and middle Upper Paleolithic. This study documents the pattern of carnivore representation in the zooarchaeological assemblages on a regional scale. The analyses of faunal assemblages across five cave sites in the two valleys of the Swabian Jura indicate intensified use of caves by humans, which corresponds to a decreased presence of large and medium sized carnivores at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in addition to the use of carnivore figures in the cultural repertoire of the Aurignacian and the increased exploitation of carnivores in the Gravettian period.

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Evidences of Interaction Homo-Cuon in three Upper Pleistocene Sites of the Iberian Mediterranean Central Region.

Juan Vicente Morales Pérez, Alfred Sanchis Serra, Cristina Real Margalef, Manuel Pérez Ripoll, Joan Emili Aura Tortosa, Valentín Villaverde Bonilla.

Keywords: CUON, HUMANS, INTERACTION, ACCUMULATION, ANTHROPIC MARKS, UPPER PLEISTOCENE, IBERIAN MEDITERRANEAN

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (18 issue)

Several cuon bones were discovered recently in three Upper Pleistocene archeological sites in the central area of the Iberian Mediterranean. This has proved that there were different types of interactions between dholes and prehistoric human groups. Firstly, evidence found in the archeological sites of Cova Negra and Coves de Santa Maira shows the use of carcasses of dholes by human hunter-gatherers. Secondly, the dhole remains recovered in Cova del Parpalló shows the dholes and humans could occupy the same habitat. In this case, the dhole died by natural causes in a small and isolated gallery before the human groups occupied the cave during the gravettian period. Associated with the dhole bones, there were also many ungulate mammal remains found. Some of these bones shows carnivore tooth marks. Due to these findings, we can presume that the dhole might have been the predator responsible for the bones discovered within the chamber. With the data provided we can come to the conclusion that this species had a more prominent role than we originally thought.

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A Taphonomic study of the Búho and Zarzamora caves. Hyenas and Humans in the Iberian Plateau (Segovia, Spain) during the Late Pleistocene.

M.T. Nohemi Sala, Milagros Algaba, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Arantza Aranburu, Ana Pantoja.

Keywords: HYENA DEN, ZARZAMORA CAVE, KARSTIC SITE, TAPHONOMY

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (19 issue)

The Búho and the Zarzamora caves (Segovia, Spain) are two small karstic cavities in the North of the Central System Cretaceous limestones, in the transitional region between the Sierra de Guadarrama Mountains and the Castilian Plateau. The infilling sediment was excavated during two periods, from 1988-1990 and from 2008- actuality, and subsequently has been assigned to the Late Pleistocene. The aim of this study is the taphonomical analysis of the macrofaunal remains from the old and the new excavation campaigns. The taxonomical list includes: Carnivora (Crocuta crocuta, cf. Panthera sp., Lynx sp., Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes and Meles meles), Perissodactyla (Equus ferus, Equus hydruntinus and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus) and Artiodactyla (Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Bison priscus and Bos primigenius). The abundance of hyena juveniles and coprolites, as well as carnivore tooth marks and digested bones suggest that the Búho and Zarzamora caves worked as a spotted hyena den during the Late Pleistocene. Nevertheless some human activity is also present in the Zarzamora cave site with evidences of cut marks in carnivore remains (Lynx sp.). The macro faunal association suggests an open environment where equids were the most abundant herbivores.

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Multidisciplinary Approach to two Chatelperronian Series: Lower IX Layer of Labeko Koba and X Level of Ekain (Basque Country, Spain).

Aritza Villaluenga, Alvaro Arrizabalaga, Joseba Rios-Garaizar.

Keywords: URSUS SPELAEUS, CROCUTA CROCUTA SPELAEA, CHATELPERRONIAN, LABEKO KOBA, EKAIN, TAPHONOMY, LITHIC TECHNO-TIPOLOGY, USE-WEAR ANALYSIS

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (20 issue)

Lower IX level from Labeko Koba and X level of Ekain have been considered relevant because their archaeological attribution to the Chatelperronian. Nevertheless the association of these archaeological evidences with complex faunal assemblages, characterized by the high presence of carnivores, requires a detailed archaeozoological analysis in order to understand the real nature of human interaction in the site and thus asses the function of these occupations. The Labeko Koba IX lower layer is an occupation of cave hyenas (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), where we can identify, through a taphonomic analysis that a part of the assemblage had anthropic origin. On the other hand, the level X of Ekain is an accumulation of remains of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) associated with a small assemblage of lithic artifacts. The particularities of cave bear ethology during hibernation suggest that ursids were not the main accumulator of other species bones. In this paper, we wish to contribute to a better understanding of human presence in these sites during the Chatelperronian, by comparing the results produced by the Archaeozoology and the Lithic Techno-tipology. Grace to this interdisciplinary study it has been possible to identify, in both levels, the role played by carnivores and humans in faunal remain accumulation and thus characterize the impact and nature of human presence in both sites. This paper could be a contribution for understanding the coevolution of humans and carnivores in caves of the southwestern Europe during the early Upper Palaeolithic.

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Cave Bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller Heinroth, 1794) and Humans During the Early Upper Pleistocene (Lower and Middle Palaeolithic) in Lezetxiki, Lezetxiki II and Astigarragako Kobea (Basque Country, Spain). Preliminary Approach.

Aritza Villaluenga, Pedro Castaños, Alvaro Arrizabalaga, Jose Antonio Mujika Alustiza.

Keywords: URSUS SPELAEUS DENINGEROIDE, URSUS SPELAEUS, EARLY UPPER PLEISTOCENE, LOWER PALAEOLITIHIC, LEZETXIKI, LEZETXIKI II, ASTIGARRAGAKO KOBEA, ARCHAEOZOOLOGY, TAPHONOMY

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (21 issue)

Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth, 1794) are the most abundant taxon in the lower levels of many archaeological sites in Cantabrian Area. Through the scientific literature, archaeological levels have been consistently assigned to the different cultural periods, depending on the identified stone tools. In this paper, we would like to contribute to the interpretation of these sequences, through the accurate analysis of their archaeozoological accumulations. By presenting three examples, Lezetxiki, Lezetxiki II and Astigarragako Kobea, we will try to bring new data to this problem. Archaeozoological analysis carried out at these three stratigraphical sequences, have shown the existence of intense bears (Ursus spelaeus deningeroide Mottle, 1964 and Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth, 1794) occupation and human groups ephemeral presence (through the presence of lithic implements), in the oldest levels (Lower Palaeolithic) stratigraphic series of the three cavities. Our aim is to present the preliminary archeozoological and taphonomic results of these three sequences.

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Bears and Hyenas from the Latest Pleistocene of Southern Iberia: Sima de Abraham, Priego de Córdoba, Andalusia.

Rafael María Martínez-Sánchez, Juan Manuel López-García, Antonio Alcalá-Ortíz, Hugues-Alexandre Blain, Raquel Rabal-Garcés, María Dolores Bretones-García, Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal, Arancha Martínez-Aguirre.

Keywords: BEARS, HYENAS, CUT MARKS, LATE PLEISTOCENE, SINKHOLES, SOUTHERN IBERIA

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (22 issue)

This work describes the fossil accumulations recovered during the excavation of the sinkhole called Sima de Abraham (Sierra Alcaide, Priego de Córdoba, Iberia). This site is characterized by a prominent accumulation of mammalian fossil remains, including carnivores (especially bears, lynx, wildcats and spotted hyenas) and artiodactyls (red deer and ibex) among other species. Human activity does not seem to be the primary agent of accumulation, although a series of cut marks have been found on the articular cavity of the proximal ulna of a large bear, providing interesting insight into the interaction between bears and humans. The age of the deposit was set in the Late Pleistocene in a previous study according to the presence of the southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus) and subsequently corroborated by means of AMS and U/Th, obtaining an approximate age of 40- 30 ky BP, corresponding to MIS 3, in the latest Pleistocene.

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Human-Carnivore Interaction at the End of the Pleistocene in Southern Patagonia, Chile.

Fabiana María Martin

Keywords: INTERACTION, PLEISTOCENE, CARNIVORES, HUNTER-GATHERERS, CAVES

[+info] VOLUME 10. NUMBERS 3&4. 2012 (23 issue)

Fossil evidence about the interaction between carnivores and the first human colonizers of southern South America is presented. The time overlap of carnivores and humans in this region is discussed using the available Late Pleistocene radiocarbon chronologies. On the other hand, the selection of places to live in the regional space is evaluated. Cases in which both carnivores (Panthera onca mesembrina, Smilodon sp., Arctotherium tarijense) and humans are present in the same sites-deposits are then considered and it appears that their interaction was not important. Evidence for human utilization of sites dominated by carnivores is ephemeral at most, while the presence of carnivores at sites dominated by humans is never important. The faunal record from both classes of sites indicates that carnivores as well as humans shared some subsistence resources (Hippidion saldiasi and camelids). However, they differ in the selection of living spaces. Carnivores selected endogenous caves, while humans tend to use exogenous caves.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Hominid-carnivore interactions.

Jordi Rosell, Enrique Baquedano, Ruth Blasco, Edgard Camarós.

Keywords

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