EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Volumen 9. Number 3. Year 2011.

2019-11-06T22:56:49+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 9. Number 3. Year 2011.|

VOLUME 9. NUMBER 3. 2011

Suid Bone Marrow Yields and How They May Influence Resource Choice.

Gillian L. Edwards, Teresa E. Steele.

Keywords: BONE MARROW, FAT, DOMESTIC PIG, WILD BOAR, EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY, TAPHONOMY, WILDEBEEST, IMPALA

[+info] VOLUME 9. NUMBERS 3. 2011 (1 issue)

Marrow is a valuable source of energy, fat, and nutrients that has been exploited by prehistoric and historic peoples across many different environments. Previous experiments on marrow yields have provided new insights into the nutritional value of many ungulates that were important to the diets of past hominins. However, few studies have been conducted on suids. To investigate the caloric value of suid marrow, we broke ten humeri, seven radii, eight femora and seven tibiae of domestic pig and two of each of these elements of wild boar (both Sus scrofa) limb bones using the hammerstone and anvil technique. The marrow inside was removed and dried so that its kilocaloric value could be calculated. In this paper we compare and discuss the kilocaloric yields of males and females, different elements, and different age groups and conclude that, beyond seasonality, body size and age are potential indicators of marrow kilocaloric yields. Further, we compare our data to available data on impala (Aepyceros melampus) and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), and we conclude that these ungulates provided more marrow than suids, and therefore they may have provided more benefits as a food resource.

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Diagenetic Changes in Pleistocene Mollusc Shells of the Patras-Corinth Rift (Greece).

Yannicke Dauphin, Alain Denis, Denis Sorel.

Keywords: MOLLUSC SHELLS, PLEISTOCENE, DIAGENESIS, MICROSTRUCTURES, ORGANIC MATRICES

[+info] VOLUME 9. NUMBERS 3. 2011 (2 issue)

Modern mollusc shells and samples from the Pleistocene of the Patras-Corinth rift (Greece) have been studied to determine the state of preservation of the microstructures. Diagenetic effects are highly variable within the site, within a shell, and within a structural layer. The strongest effects have destroyed the microstructures. Some microstructural changes are correlative of a mineralogical change (aragonite to calcite). The comparison of soluble organic matrices extracted from modern and “well-preserved” fossil shells shows there is a loss of organic matrices in fossil shells even in still aragonitic samples. Moreover, the composition of the organic matrices is also altered. From these data, it appears that diagenetic alterations are still unpredictable. Thus, the only control of the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons used as proxies for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, to establish tectonic movements, or for dating is necessary, but insufficient.

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Flaked Stone Taphonomy: a Controlled Experimental Study of the Effects of Sediment Consolidation on Flake Edge Morphology.

Metin I. Eren, Andrew R. Boehm, Brooke M. Morgan, Rick Anderson, Brian Andrews.

Keywords: TAPHONOMY, FLAKED STONE TOOLS, EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY, SEDIMENT CONSOLIDATION, GRAVEL, PRESSURE

[+info] VOLUME 9. NUMBERS 3. 2011 (3 issue)

Sediment consolidation can influence both stone flake artifact inclination and vertical displacement. In this paper we present a novel experiment for investigating the effect of sediment consolidation on the morphology of stone flakes. Focusing specifically on the variables of gravel size and pressure, we show that sediment consolidation does not appear to result in the creation of retouched assemblages from nonretouched ones. Bend-break fractures via sediment consolidation did occur at higher frequencies, and as such the occurrence of bend-breaks needs further experimentation to tease out other specific contexts in which they occur. Overall, however, our experimental results suggest that in most cases archaeologists should not be concerned with sediment consolidation altering the appearance of flaked stone assemblages.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Isognomon shell concentration.

Juan C. Braga

Keywords

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Volumen 13. Number 1. Year 2015.

2019-11-06T23:04:52+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 13. Number 1. Year 2015.|

Volumen 13. Number 1. Year 2015.

Evaluating the Role of Skill Level in Fish Butchery.

Lauren M. Willis, Andrew R. Boehm.

Keywords: EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY, CUT MARKS, CHINOOK SALMON, SKILL, KNOWLEDGE, KNOW-HOW, BUTCHERY

[+info] VOLUME 13. NUMBERS 1. 2015 (1 issue)

Recent butchery experiments have acknowledged the potential influence of experience level on experimental results. This paper evaluates the effect of skill level on the number and distribution of cut marks produced on fish bone during butchery. Participants of varying skill levels (novice, intermediate, and professional) butchered a total of 30 salmon. Professional butchers differed from intermediate- and novice-level butchers in the number of cut marks produced and the amount of time required to butcher the fish. Specifically, the professional butchers produced nearly 50% fewer cut marks than novices and intermediate-level butchers; the intermediate- and novice-level butchers were statistically indistinguishable. The distribution of the cut marks varied both within and between the skill levels. These results have implications for experimental methodology and for future efforts to identify butchery skill within the archaeological record.

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Weathering and Dispersal of a Cattle (Bos taurus) Carcass in the Desert of Eastern Jordan over a Six-Year Interval.

James T. Pokines, Christopher J.H. Ames.

Keywords: WEATHERING, BOS TAURUS, DISPERSAL, DESERT, TAPHONOMY, JORDAN

[+info] VOLUME 13. NUMBERS 1. 2015 (2 issue)

A recently dead carcass of domesticated cattle (Bos taurus) was examined for patterns of subaerial weathering and dispersal over the course of six years in Wadi Enoqiyya, north of Azraq in the eastern desert of Jordan. The progress of taphonomic changes was plotted at one- or two-year intervals. Weathering stage 1 was reached rapidly by multiple exposed elements, and by the six-year mark, several elements had reached weathering stage 3 in the system of Behrensmeyer (1978). Minor scavenger modification was detected. Seasonal alluvial transport in the nearby wadi and trampling from goat/sheep herds were found to be significant sources of dispersal, along with carnivore scavenging. Some elements were transported up to 121 m by year six, with a cumulative distance of dispersed elements reaching 583 m.

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Cannibalism in the Neanderthal World: An Exhaustive Revision.

Marta Yustos, José Yravedra Sainz de los Terreros.

Keywords: NEANDERTHALS, CANNIBALISM, CUT MARKS, DEFLESHING, TAPHONOMY

[+info] VOLUME 13. NUMBERS 1. 2015 (3 issue)

Cannibalism is a controversial subject that has always created great expectation. Different evidences found show it was a recurrent practice amongst the different hominine species from the Lower Pleistocene to historic times. However, understanding the reasons behind this behavior in such chronologies is a complicated matter. Several Neanderthal sites have uncovered new data on anthropogenic alterations on human remains, along with a great diversity of interpretations. Some authors highlight the possibility of a ritual or symbolic meaning whereas others believe this was due to dietary necessities since studied cut marks resemble those found on faunal remains. The aim of this study is to carry out an exhaustive Neanderthal cannibalism bibliographic revision, with especial focus on taphonomical evidences such as cut mark frequencies and cut mark anatomical distribution. The main objective of this study is therefore to ponder on Neanderthal cannibalism and propose new insights on this behavior.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Understanding exceptional preservation in microbial mats.

Miguel Iniesto, M. Carmen Guerrero, Ana I. López-Archilla.

Keywords

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