JORDAN

Volumen 9. Number 2. Year 2011.

2019-11-06T22:56:10+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 9. Number 2. Year 2011.|

VOLUME 9. NUMBER 2. 2011

The Likely Accumulators of Bones: Five Cape Porcupine Den Assemblages and the Role of Porcupines in the Post-Member 6 Infill at Sterkfontein, South Africa.

Hannah J. O’Regan, Kathleen Kuman, Ronald J. Clarke.

Keywords: HYSTRIX AFRICAEAUSTRALIS, GNAWING, BONE MODIFICATION, ACCUMULATION

[+info] VOLUME 9. NUMBERS 2. 2011 (1 issue)

The Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis, is an acknowledged accumulator of bones in southern Africa. Here we examine porcupine accumulated material from five localities in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, including a re-analysis of the Nossob lair published by Brain (1981). These results are then compared to a Mid-Late Pleistocene assemblage (L/63) from Post-Member 6 at Sterkfontein. The taphonomic analyses indicate that porcupines are indiscriminate collectors of bones and other items. Unlike many other vertebrate bone accumulators porcupines do not appear to have a collection size bias, as the species represented in the assemblages range in body mass from >0.14kg to <940kg. Not all bones collected had been gnawed, and we propose a threshold of >60% gnawed bones is needed to establish that material has been collected by Cape porcupines rather than as a result of a number of other sources. Of the macrovertebrate component of the L/63 fossil assemblage, only 149 specimens exhibited porcupine gnawing (11%), while that number rose to 263 (6.97%) of the total NISP and fragment count (n= 3775). This is well below the threshold proposed in this analysis and in the published literature, indicating that porcupines are unlikely to have been a primary contributor to the L/63 assemblage. The possible role of porcupines in creating and maintaining mosaic environments through their foraging activities is also discussed.

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The Functioning of a Natural Faunal Trap in a Semi-Arid Environment: Preliminary Investigations of WZM-1, a Limestone Sinkhole Site Near Wadi Zarqa Ma’in, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

James T. Pokines, April Nowell, Michael S. Bisson, Carlos E. Cordova, Christopher J. H. Ames.

Keywords: WADI ZARQA MA’IN 1, SINKHOLE, FAUNAL TRAP, BARN OWL, TYTO ALBA, JORDAN, TAPHONOMY

[+info] VOLUME 9. NUMBERS 2. 2011 (2 issue)

Preliminary taphonomic investigations were carried out at the site of Wadi Zarqa Ma'in 1 (WZM-1), at 31o37'N, 35o43'E, approximately 730 m above mean sea level and 10 km south-southwest of Madaba, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. This large, open sinkhole is a natural faunal trap and raptor roosting site, accumulating significant faunal remains within deposits likely reaching well into the Pleistocene. The Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI) of identified megafauna and microfauna totals 629, with a minimum of 30 taxa represented. Nine actual or potential vectors of faunal introduction were identified, including prey of roosting raptors, natural mortality of sinkhole inhabitants, accidental falling, and deliberate introduction of dead animals by humans. Roosting raptors include barn owl (Tyto alba), the prey remains of which yielded the majority of the species diversity and total MNI. This site offers a unique opportunity to collect data on the on-going function of a prolific faunal trap in a semi-arid Near East environment, and multiple significant taphonomic considerations can be drawn from it for the analysis of both its own deposits and those of similar karst features.

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Taphonomy of Bones from Baboons Killed and Eaten by Wild Leopards in Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa.

Travis Rayne Pickering, Jason L. Heaton, Sarah E. Zwodeski, Kathleen Kuman.

Keywords: FELID PREDATION, PRIMATE MORTALITY, SKELETAL PART REPRESENTATION, BONE SURFACE MODIFICATIONS, SWARTKRANS CAVE

[+info] VOLUME 9. NUMBERS 2. 2011 (3 issue)

Taphonomic data are presented for a bone assemblage composed of the remains of seven baboons killed and eaten by wild leopards in Mapungubwe National Park (South Africa). Mortality and sex distributions of the sample meet theoretical expectations of a leopard-produced assemblage and skeletal part patterning, as well as gross patterns of bone modification, match conditions of other leopard-derived faunas composed of small- and medium-size prey, but bone surface damage is much more intensive than previously documented in collections produced by leopards. These data are analyzed comparatively and their paleoanthropological relevance for the interpretation of important fossil primate faunas, such as those from Swartkrans Cave (South Africa), is discussed.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Bone surface marks: beyond inferences of carcass consumption?

Travis R. Pickering, Jason L. Heaton, Colin Menter.

Keywords

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Volumen 13. Number 1. Year 2015.

2019-11-06T23:04:52+02:00October 26th, 2019|Volumen 13. Number 1. Year 2015.|

Volumen 13. Number 1. Year 2015.

Evaluating the Role of Skill Level in Fish Butchery.

Lauren M. Willis, Andrew R. Boehm.

Keywords: EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY, CUT MARKS, CHINOOK SALMON, SKILL, KNOWLEDGE, KNOW-HOW, BUTCHERY

[+info] VOLUME 13. NUMBERS 1. 2015 (1 issue)

Recent butchery experiments have acknowledged the potential influence of experience level on experimental results. This paper evaluates the effect of skill level on the number and distribution of cut marks produced on fish bone during butchery. Participants of varying skill levels (novice, intermediate, and professional) butchered a total of 30 salmon. Professional butchers differed from intermediate- and novice-level butchers in the number of cut marks produced and the amount of time required to butcher the fish. Specifically, the professional butchers produced nearly 50% fewer cut marks than novices and intermediate-level butchers; the intermediate- and novice-level butchers were statistically indistinguishable. The distribution of the cut marks varied both within and between the skill levels. These results have implications for experimental methodology and for future efforts to identify butchery skill within the archaeological record.

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Weathering and Dispersal of a Cattle (Bos taurus) Carcass in the Desert of Eastern Jordan over a Six-Year Interval.

James T. Pokines, Christopher J.H. Ames.

Keywords: WEATHERING, BOS TAURUS, DISPERSAL, DESERT, TAPHONOMY, JORDAN

[+info] VOLUME 13. NUMBERS 1. 2015 (2 issue)

A recently dead carcass of domesticated cattle (Bos taurus) was examined for patterns of subaerial weathering and dispersal over the course of six years in Wadi Enoqiyya, north of Azraq in the eastern desert of Jordan. The progress of taphonomic changes was plotted at one- or two-year intervals. Weathering stage 1 was reached rapidly by multiple exposed elements, and by the six-year mark, several elements had reached weathering stage 3 in the system of Behrensmeyer (1978). Minor scavenger modification was detected. Seasonal alluvial transport in the nearby wadi and trampling from goat/sheep herds were found to be significant sources of dispersal, along with carnivore scavenging. Some elements were transported up to 121 m by year six, with a cumulative distance of dispersed elements reaching 583 m.

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Cannibalism in the Neanderthal World: An Exhaustive Revision.

Marta Yustos, José Yravedra Sainz de los Terreros.

Keywords: NEANDERTHALS, CANNIBALISM, CUT MARKS, DEFLESHING, TAPHONOMY

[+info] VOLUME 13. NUMBERS 1. 2015 (3 issue)

Cannibalism is a controversial subject that has always created great expectation. Different evidences found show it was a recurrent practice amongst the different hominine species from the Lower Pleistocene to historic times. However, understanding the reasons behind this behavior in such chronologies is a complicated matter. Several Neanderthal sites have uncovered new data on anthropogenic alterations on human remains, along with a great diversity of interpretations. Some authors highlight the possibility of a ritual or symbolic meaning whereas others believe this was due to dietary necessities since studied cut marks resemble those found on faunal remains. The aim of this study is to carry out an exhaustive Neanderthal cannibalism bibliographic revision, with especial focus on taphonomical evidences such as cut mark frequencies and cut mark anatomical distribution. The main objective of this study is therefore to ponder on Neanderthal cannibalism and propose new insights on this behavior.

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The Taphonomist´s Corner: Understanding exceptional preservation in microbial mats.

Miguel Iniesto, M. Carmen Guerrero, Ana I. López-Archilla.

Keywords

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